Haz Click y Compra mis libros en la Casa del Libro

D y D Multimedia

www.dydmultimedia.net

  Busca temas de Historia en mi página con Google      
 
Nedstat Basic - Free web site statistics
MIS ÚLTIMOS LIBROS             Entrada Pág. Antigua NOTICIAS
   

Niños San Isidro 2007, 11 agosto 2007,

 

 

Principal Curso Doctorado  


                                                                                                                EGIPCIOS
 
 
1 2 3 4 5       Definición


 

Ojo de Horus
 

  Ankh
  Behedety

 


Amuleto egipcio: dedos

 

 


  Pilar Djed


Amuleto egipcio: pilar Djed


  Escarabajo


Amuleto egipcio: escarabeo

 


  Gato

 

  Ojo de Horus


Amuleto egipcio: ojo de Horus

  Corazon
  Shen
  Tit


Amuleto egipcio: nudo de Isis


  Vasos Canopos

URAEUS


 

Symbol:

Name:

Shen

Function:

Give life that should endure as long as the sun endures on its orbit.

Material:

Lapis lazuli or carnelian

Placed:

Upon the body

Other remarks:

Represents the sun's orbit, and symbolizes an undefined period of time. You can often see this symbol in the talons of representations of vultures or hawks.

The following are amulets that were traditionally included in the tomb or within the swathes of mummies; many of them are also widely used among the living and in frescoes.

 

Symbol:
Name: Heart
Function: Early in Egyptian history, it replaced the heart which was removed during mummification (the body needed another heart for its new life); sometimes assimilated to the Bennu, "Soul of Râ", it brings the protection of both Osiris and Râ. It would soon take the shape of the Scarab.
Material: Lapis-lazuli, carnelian
Placed: On the heart of the deceased
Other remarks: The shape of the symbol is actually that of the urn which contains the heart, and which can be seen in representations of the Weighing of the Heart (against a feather).


 
Symbol: Escarabajo
Name: Kheperu or Scarab ("newborn" or "he who rolls")
Function: See the Amulet of the Heart: the scarab had the added power of seemingly giving new life from nothing but itself, and due to its habit of pushing dung balls was the symbol of the invisible power of creation which propels the sun through the skies.
Material: Green basalt, green granite, limestone, green marble, blue paste, blue glass, purple/blue/green glazed porcelain... often set in gold; for some rituals precious stones such as emerald
Placed: On the heart of the deceased
Other remarks: Occasionally the base of the scarab is made in the form of a heart, a fact which proves the closeness of the relationship between the two amulets.


 
Symbol:
Name: Buckle or Knot of Isis
Function: Brought to the deceased the protection of the blood of Isis, and of her words of power (which raised Osiris from the dead).
Material: Carnelian, red jasper, red glass, and other red materials; sometimes of gold or gold-plated.
Placed: Attached to the neck of the deceased
Other remarks: It represents the buckle of the girdle of Isis, and symbolizes divine love


 
Symbol:
Name: Djed
Function: Since it represents the backbone (especially that of Osiris), it gave the body the power to reconstitute itself in the Other World -- starting from that most important part of the body which supports it all -- and become a perfect spirit.
Material: Wood, gold
Placed: Laid upon the neck of the deceased
Other remarks  


 
Symbol:
Name: Pillow
Function: "Lift up" and protect the head of the deceased.
Material: Haematite
Placed: Under the neck of the mummy
Other remarks:  


 
Symbol:
Name: Vulture
Function: Bring upon the deceased the protection of Isis as the divine mother, or Mut the Vulture-goddess.
Material: Gold
Placed: On the neck
Other remarks: The amulet is actually in the shape of a vulture with wings outstretched, holding in each talon the Ankh.


 
Symbol:
Name: Collar of Gold
Function: Give the deceased power to free himself from his swathings
Material: Gold
Placed: On the neck
Other remarks: This amulet is very rare and of a later period (about BC 500)


 
Symbol:
Name: Papyrus Sceptre
Function: Give the deceased vigour and renewal of youth
Material: Mother-of-emerald, light green/light blue porcelain
Placed: On the neck
Other remarks:  


 
Symbol:
Name: Amulet of the Ba or Soul
Function: Enable the soul both to unite with the mummified body, and to be with its spirit and spiritual body at will.
Material: Gold inlaid with precious stones
Placed: Upon the breast
Other remarks: The human-headed bird is the traditional representation of the ba, or soul, which accompanies the ka, or spirit.


 
Symbol:
Name: Ladder
Function: Enable the deceased to reach Heaven more easily: the sky of this world was believed to be the floor of Heaven.
Material: Wood and other
Placed: On or near the body
Other remarks:  


 
Symbol:
Name: Amulet of the Two Fingers
Function: Represents the two fingers which Horus used to help his father Osiris up the ladder into Heaven.
Material: Obsidian or haematite
Placed: Inside mummies
Other remarks:  


 
Symbol:
Name: Udjat or Eye of Horus
Function: Bring the blessings of strength, vigour, protection, safety, good health...
Material: Gold, silver, granite, haematite, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, porcelain, wood, mak stone...
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: The eye facing left was white (Sun) and the one facing right was black (Moon). Indeed one eye of Horus was blinded during his fight with Seth, and it is said that this eye became the moon while the other was the sun. It is also called the Eye of Justice.


 
Symbol:
Name: Ankh
Function: Granting life. All the gods carry it, and suffusing someone with life-force is represented by presenting an Ankh to their mouth.
Material: Various
Placed: As a pendant
Other remarks:
This is no doubt the most important of all Egyptian symbols. I give a detailed explanation of what led up to the creation of this symbol in an article about the world shaping Egyptian beliefs.
Here is an interesting image from the Papyrus of Ani: the Ankh supported by the Djed supports the disk of the Sun (the arms are there to illustrate the action).
 


 
Symbol:
Name: Nefer ("beauty", "happiness", "good fortune"...)
Function: Bring the blessings above
Material: Carnelian, red stone, red porcelain, and the like
Placed: As a pendant
Other remarks: Budge says it represents a musical instrument, but everywhere else it is said to represent the heart and aorta.


 
Symbol:
Name: Amulet of the Serpent's Head
Function: Keep the body from being bitten by snakes in the underworld by means of the power of the great Snake-goddess Isis
Material: Carnelian, red stone, red paste, red jasper
Placed: Anywhere on the body
Other remarks:  


 
Symbol:
Name: Menat
Function: Bring joy and health to the wearer; on the dead, bring the power of life and reproduction to the body.
Material: Bronze, stone, porcelain, and other
Placed: Upon the body
Other remarks: Represents nutrition and strength; I suspect it to be a representation of the stomach or other organ.


 
Symbol:
Name: Sam ("union")
Function: Obvious?
Material: Lapis lazuli and other hard stones
Placed: At the appropriate place
Other remarks: Represents the phallus and the union of male and female, a part that is erroneously attributed to the Ankh.


 
Symbol:
Name: Shen
Function: Give life that should endure as long as the sun endures on its orbit.
Material: Lapis lazuli or carnelian
Placed: Upon the body
Other remarks: Represents the sun's orbit, and symbolizes an undefined period of time. You can often see this symbol in the talons of representations of vultures or hawks.


 
Symbol:
Name: Amulet of the Steps
Function: Similar to the ladder
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: It is also the throne of Osiris: he is often seen seated upon the top of a flight of steps holding his usual symbols of sovereignty.


 
Symbol:
Name: Heqt or Frog
Function: Transfer to the body the power of resurrection of Heqt the Frog-goddess
Placed: Upon the body
Other remarks: This symbol is also used for the number 100,000


 
Symbol:
Name: White Crown
Function: Probably authority and reserved for Pharaohs
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: Rare. This is the Crown of the South, or Higher Egypt


 
Symbol:
Name: Red Crown
Function: Probably authority and reserved for Pharaohs
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: Rare. This is the Crown of the North, or Lower Egypt


 
Symbol:
Name: Horizon
Function: Not specified
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: Rare. Where the sun rises


 
Symbol:
Name: Amulet of the Angle
Function: Protection
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: Rare.


 
Symbol:
Name: Crown of Osiris
Function: Probably authority in the Underworld and reserved for Pharaohs
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks: This crown is most commonly seen worn by Osiris as ruler of the Underworld.


 
Symbol:
Name: Plummet
Function: Not specified
Placed: Not specified
Other remarks:  
 

 

 

<<1 <<< <<<2 <<< <<<<3 <<<  <<< 4 <<<  

Piedras preciosas utilizadas como amuletos.
Agata Coral Cornalina
Diamante Lapislazuli Sanguinaria



 
 


ESCARABAJO ALADO

.Amuletos con esta forma se solían colocar sobre el pecho de las momias en el lugar del corazón, ya que creían que era una fuente de vida eterna . Para consagrar el amuleto hay que invocar el nombre del dios Thot.

 



 
 


OJO DE HORUS

o También llamado Oudjat. Se suponía que  protegía contra todas las influencias negativas, aportaba  seguridad, fuerza y salud. Era colocado entre las vendas de las momias. Modernamente su uso continúa entre los musulmanes y pueden verse numerosos ejemplos de todo el Próximo Oriente, sobre todo en Egipto, Turquía y norte de África

w

a

vv

ee

uu

nnn

nnnnn

uu

eeeeee

nnnnn

aaaaaaa

eeeeee

aaaaaaa

El texto continúa:

 



 
 

ankh.gif - 2,29 K
ANJK
 o Llave de la Vida. Protege y da seguridad a quien lo lleva. En realidad, es el jeroglífico que significa "vida"







 

 

Ágata

Trabajada en forma de escarabajo, era útil contra cólicos y diarreas.

Coral
Utilizado para combatir la esterilidad por su similitud con la sangre y por ello con la menstruación

Cornalina
Protegía a los vivos y a los muertos por su color rojo, signo de vida y calor.

Diamante
Utilizada contra los problemas de la vista.

Lapislázuli
Contra los impulsos incestuosos.

De acuerdo con el papiro de NEKH-TU-AMON, el amuleto del corazón  estaba hecho de lapislázuli, no dejando lugar a dudas que ésta piedra poseía ciertas cualidades mágicas .En realidad, confería la vida eterna por su similitud con el cielo estrellado

También hay que recordar que de acuerdo a una tradición, el texto del capítulo LXIV del LIBRO DE LOS MUERTOS, fue encontrado  escrito en letras de lapislázuli, en el reinado de HESEP-TI, faraón de Egipto 4.300 a.c. y  por  la manera que se menciona en la rúbrica se  prueba su  importancia.

A pesar que un corazón

Sanguinaria
Llevada sobre el pecho contra todos los males.





 

Amuleto del corazón

El corazón sede de la voluntad y la razón, y centro de la personalidad, era sometido a examen por los Dioses en el mas allá.
El amuleto rojo con forma de corazón ayuda al difunto a pasar el juicio.

El capítulo XXVII, se refiere a un amuleto en forma de corazón, hecho de una piedra blanca semi-trasparente y dice:

Eh, tu, que te llevas los corazones.

Eh, tu, ladrón de corazones, permite que el corazón del hombre vaya a través de transformaciones de acuerdo con sus actos, no permitas que se dañe en su presencia.

Yo te honro, Oh Lord de la Eternidad, posesor de ella. No tomes éste corazón de OSIRIS - el fallecido estaba identificado con Osiris, Juez y Dios de los muertos-, en tus garras y no digas palabras diabólicas en contra de él, porque es el corazón de OSIRIS, y a él le pertenece.

Él, que es todopoderoso y cuyas palabras son sus costillas y que envía a por su corazón, para que éste habite en su cuerpo.

El corazón de OSIRIS, está triunfante y se ha hecho nuevo en presencia de los dioses. La ha dominado el poder y no ha sido juzgado de acuerdo con lo que ha hecho.



 
 


 



 
 


SHEN

u órbita del disco solar. Hace inmortal a quien lo lleva. Simboliza la vida eterna. Amón con amuletos shem o shenq




SHED, DJED

Este amuleto asegura a su poseedor, longevidad, proteccion y estabilidad.
Por analogia con la espina dorsal de Osiris, refuerza la columna vertebral.
Simboliza el arbol en que Isis escondio el cuerpo de su esposo, para protejerlo de los celos de Seth.Las 4 barras horizontales representan los cuatro puntos cardinales.


 
 


SHABTI

Son figuritas pequeñas que se solian colocar en las tumbas, llevan inscripciones del Libro de los Muertos.




TIT
o Nudo de Isis.Simbolo de la Diosa Isis, que representa un nudo de cinturon de color rojo, contrapartida femenina del pilar Dyed.
amuleto que proteje las momias.




BEHEDETY

Forma de Horus, Sol provisto de dos Ureos que simbolizan el dominio del astro sobre el conjunto del mundo.
Su efigie protectora presidia los lugares de paso, como las puertas, pero tambien ciertas escenas rituales.




 
 


GATO

Protector del Hogar.como simbolo de la eficacia y la feminidad del ama de casa, aparece representado el las paredes de las capillas funerarias, bajo el asiento de la difunta.




 
 


Vasos Canopos


Estos cuatro vasos, con cabeza de hombre, de mono, de halcón y de chacal.
contenian las visceras del difunto, que se confiaban a las cuatro entidades protectoras que representaban estos vasos.


 
 
 

                                                      Ankh

 Arqueta del tesoro de Tutankhamón. Museo de El Cairo

www.egyptarchive.co.uk/ html/cairo_museum_39.html

Bibliografía: VÁZQUEZ HOYS, A.Mª(1): Diccionario de magia en el mundo antiguo. (Con Óscar Muñoz Martín) Ed. Alderabán, Madrid 1997. I.S.B.N. 84-88676-16-6 

(2)ARCANA  MAGICA, Madrid, UNED, 21 febrero 2003. ISBN 84-362-4269-6, Página del libro

(3)Historia de la religión mesopotámica. Historia de las Religiones Antiguas. Tomo I. Editorial Sanz y Torres, Madrid, Febrero 2006